The goal of od is to provide functions and example datasets for working with origin-destination (OD) datasets. OD datasets represent “the volume of travel between zones or locations” (Carey et al. 1981) and are central to modelling city to global scale transport systems (Simini et al. 2012).

Installation

You can install the released version of od from CRAN with:

Install the development version from GitHub with:

# install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("itsleeds/od")

Motivation

The package originated as a set of functions in the package stplanr for working with origin-destination data. The od2line() function, for example, takes a data frame and a spatial object as inputs and outputs geographic lines representing movement between origins and destinations:

library(od) # load example datasets
od_data_df # OD data as data frame
#>   geo_code1 geo_code2  all train bus taxi car_driver car_passenger bicycle foot
#> 1 E02002363 E02006875  922     5 356    7        375            76      43   53
#> 2 E02002373 E02006875 1037   111 424   20        155            30      73  214
#> 3 E02002385 E02006875  958   121 334   19        118            25      52  283
#> 4 E02006852 E02002392  437     1  96    3        142            26      61  108
#> 5 E02006852 E02006875 1221    14 509   13        401            50      99  118
#> 6 E02006861 E02006875 1177    43 400   30        123            28      56  492
od_data_centroids[1:2, ]
#>    geo_code             geometry
#> 1 E02002407 -1.609934, 53.790790
#> 2 E02002336   -1.62463, 53.88605
desire_lines_stplanr = stplanr::od2line(od_data_df, od_data_centroids)
desire_lines_stplanr[1:2, 1:9]
#> Simple feature collection with 2 features and 9 fields
#> geometry type:  LINESTRING
#> dimension:      XY
#> bbox:           xmin: -1.581773 ymin: 53.79593 xmax: -1.534957 ymax: 53.82859
#> geographic CRS: WGS 84
#>   geo_code1 geo_code2  all train bus taxi car_driver car_passenger bicycle
#> 1 E02002363 E02006875  922     5 356    7        375            76      43
#> 2 E02002373 E02006875 1037   111 424   20        155            30      73
#>                         geometry
#> 1 LINESTRING (-1.534957 53.82...
#> 2 LINESTRING (-1.581773 53.81...

It works great, and is plenty fast enough for most applications, but there are some issues with stplanr::od2line() (which also affect the other od_*() functions in stplanr):

  • The function is a commonly needed and low-level function, buried in a large package, reducing ‘findability’
  • To get the function you must install stplanr plus its numerous dependencies
  • The function has not been optimised
  • It has no class definition of ‘od’ data

The od package, as it currently stands, addresses the first three of these issues (it may at some point define a class for od objects but there are no immediate plans to do so).

The equivalent code in the od package is as follows:

desire_lines_od = od_to_sfc(od_data_df, od_data_centroids)

The result is an sfc object that has the same geometry as the output from od2line:

desire_lines_od[1:2]
#> Geometry set for 2 features 
#> geometry type:  LINESTRING
#> dimension:      XY
#> bbox:           xmin: -1.581773 ymin: 53.79593 xmax: -1.534957 ymax: 53.82859
#> geographic CRS: WGS 84
#> LINESTRING (-1.534957 53.82859, -1.545708 53.79...
#> LINESTRING (-1.581773 53.8186, -1.545708 53.79593)
desire_lines_stplanr$geometry[1:2]
#> Geometry set for 2 features 
#> geometry type:  LINESTRING
#> dimension:      XY
#> bbox:           xmin: -1.581773 ymin: 53.79593 xmax: -1.534957 ymax: 53.82859
#> geographic CRS: WGS 84
#> LINESTRING (-1.534957 53.82859, -1.545708 53.79...
#> LINESTRING (-1.581773 53.8186, -1.545708 53.79593)

These are ‘desire lines’ representing the shortest (straight line) path between two centroids and can plotted using geographic data and mapping packages such as sf, mapview, tmap and mapdeck, e.g.:

plot(desire_lines_od)
plot(desire_lines_stplanr$geometry)

By default the package uses the sfheaders package to create sf objects for speed. You can can also specify sf outputs as follows:

desire_lines_od_sf1 = od_to_sf(od_data_df, od_data_centroids)
#> 0 origins with no match in zone ids
#> 0 destinations with no match in zone ids
#>  points not in od data removed.

Performance

Benchmark on a small dataset:

nrow(od_data_df)
#> [1] 6
bench::mark(check = FALSE, max_iterations = 100,
  stplanr = stplanr::od2line(od_data_df, od_data_zones),
  od = od_to_sfc(od_data_df, od_data_zones),
  od_sf1 = od_to_sf(od_data_df, od_data_zones),
  od_sf2 = od_to_sf(od_data_df, od_data_zones, package = "sf", crs = 4326)
)
#> # A tibble: 4 x 6
#>   expression      min   median `itr/sec` mem_alloc `gc/sec`
#>   <bch:expr> <bch:tm> <bch:tm>     <dbl> <bch:byt>    <dbl>
#> 1 stplanr      5.46ms   6.12ms      153.   600.5KB     11.6
#> 2 od           2.69ms   3.16ms      286.    78.2KB     11.9
#> 3 od_sf1       3.78ms    4.5ms      199.    77.8KB     13.4
#> 4 od_sf2       3.75ms   4.16ms      228.    90.8KB     12.0

Code of Conduct

Please note that the od project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By contributing to this project, you agree to abide by its terms.